EPUB Content Documents 3.0

Editors Draft IN PROGRESS

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Garth Conboy, eBook Technologies

Markus Gylling, DAISY Consortium

William McCoy, WebPaper LLC

TBD - additional editors

Table of Contents

1. Overview
1.1. Purpose and Scope
1.2. Relationship to Other Specifications
1.3. Terminology
1.4. Conformance
1.4.1. Conformance statements
2. Introduction to Content Documents
2.1. Relationship to HTML
2.2. Relationship to SVG
2.3. Relationship to CSS
2.4. Example Content Document
3. XHTML5 Content Documents
3.1. Additional Language Constructs
3.1.1. Semantic inflection: the epub:type and rel attributes The epub:type attribute Vocabulary association The epub:type and rel attributes: processing requirements Semantic inflection: examples
3.1.2. The epub:trigger Element
3.2. MathML Support
3.2.1. Content MathML
3.2.2. Annotation Types
3.2.3. Fallback Images
3.3. Restriction on Unicode Private Use Characters
3.4. Alternate Style Tags
3.5. Resource References
3.6. Discouraged Constructs
3.6.1. rp element
3.7. Scripting Support
3.8. User Agent Conformance Requirements
3.9. Schema Information
4. SVG Content Documents
4.1. Embedded Content
5. EPUB Style Sheets
5.1. CSS 2.1
5.1.1. Voice Characteristics Properties
5.2. CSS Fonts Level 3
5.3. CSS Text Level 3
5.4. CSS Writing Modes
5.5. Media Queries
5.6. Multi-Column Layout
5.7. Phoneme Property
5.8. Phonetic Alphabet at-rule
5.9. Ruby positioning
5.10. Display Property Values oeb-page-head and oeb-page-foot
A. Contributors
A.1. Acknowledgements and Contributors

1. Overview

1.1. Purpose and Scope

This specification, EPUB Content Documents 3.0, defines extension profiles of XHTML, SVG, and CSS optimized for representation of structured, composable, and accessible documents. This specification is one of a family of related specifications that comprise EPUB3, the third major revision of an interchange and delivery format for digital publications based on XML and Web Standards.

This document is meant to be read and understood in concert with the other documents that make up EPUB3. The EPUB3 Overview [EPUB3Overview], which provides an informative overview of EPUB and a roadmap to the rest of the EPUB3 documents, should be read first.

1.2. Relationship to Other Specifications

This specification relies on several building-block specifications. The XHTML vocabulary is defined by HTML5 [HTML5] , and by default all terminology used in this specification has the same meaning as its use therein. This specification also relies on XML Namespaces [XMLNS], and in this specification the term "XML namespace" (or just "namespace") has the meaning defined in that specification. Additionally, this specification defines rules for CSS style sheets based on CSS 2.1 and certain CSS 3 modules.

This specification supersedes

TODO: enumerate other dependent specs TODO: statement about layered use of terminology from other dependent specs TODO: statement about conformance requirements based on dependent specsTODO: make this a list not prose paragraphs

1.3. Terminology

EPUB Style Sheet (or, in this specification, "Style Sheet")

A CSS Style Sheet conformant to this specification.

XHTML Content Document

An XML Document conformant with the constraints of version 5 of the XML serialization of HTML (XHTML5) [HTML5], which adheres to additional restrictions and may contain additional constructs as defined by this specification.

SVG Content Document

An XML Document conformant with the constraints of Scalable Vector Graphics 1.1 [SVG], which adheres to additional restrictions and may contain additional constructs as defined by this specification.

EPUB Content Document (or Content Document)

An XHTML Content Dozcument or SVG Content Document.

User Agent

A User Agent as defined in [HTML5] that processes Content Documents and EPUB Style Sheets in a manner conformant with this specification.

1.4. Conformance

1.4.1. Conformance statements

The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

All sections of this specification are normative except where identified by the informative status label "This section is informative". The application of informative status to sections and appendices applies to all child content and subsections they may contain.

All examples in this specification are informative.

2. Introduction to Content Documents

This specification defines extension profiles of XHTML5, SVG, and CSS, and an associated simplified User Agent procesing model, intended to facilitate representation of structured, accessible documents that may be composed together and presented to users in a variety of manners as part of an overall publication. TODO: a number of referenced specifications are still under development (e.g. CSS3 modules). We have a strategy to deal with this en route to finalizing EPUB3; meanwhile, we are for now being "profligate" with references to such unfinished specifications.

2.1. Relationship to HTML

This specification defines upwardly compatible optional extensions to of [HTML5] and [CSS].. Because the extensions are optional, every conforming XHTML5 document is a conforming EPUB XHTML Content Document as defined herein, and every style sheet conformant with CSS 2.1 is a valid EPUB3 Style Sheet. Optionally, EPUB XHTML Content Documents and EPUB Style Sheets may utilize additional constructs as defined in this specification. (EPUB XHTML Content Documents are a subset of [HTML5] only in the sense that use of the XHTML serialization is required).

Since EPUB XHTML Content Documents are XHTML5 documents with optional namespaced extensions it is completely legitimate to process them according to the processing model defined for HTML5 (which is defined to require User Agents to ignore the additional namespaced elements and attributes).

This specification defines a simplified processing model that does not require support for scripting or a DOM, further constraining the requirements given in the HTML5 specification. Any User Agent conformant with this specification must be able to process any conforming EPUB Content Document according to this specification, but it is not presumed that such User Agents will necessarily be in full conformance with HTML5, i.e. they may not implement the complete processing model of HTML5.

2.2. Relationship to SVG

This specification does not define any extensions to [SVG], but imposes the restriction that in SVG Content Documents, embedded flow content is limited to XHTML5 (i.e. arbitrary XML is disallowed).

2.3. Relationship to CSS

Content Documents may reference style sheets or include inline style information. The style sheet language defined by this specification is based on CSS 2.1, and any style sheet content legitimate in CSS 2.1 may appear in a style sheet utilized by a Content Document. In addition, this specification incorporates several style capabilities defined by CSS3 Modules, and defines several additional vendor-specific CSS constructs

2.4. Example Content Document

This section is non-normative, showing an EPUB Content Document that utilizes ...

  • Hello World

  • Another?

3. XHTML5 Content Documents

TODO: Format this sections like HTML5 spec

3.1. Additional Language Constructs

Any conformant XHTML5 document can be considered to be a conformant XHTML5 Content Document according to this specification, so long as its uses and references to styles conform to the EPUB Style Sheet rules described in the following chapter. In addition, a Content Document may utilize several additional constructs, these include:

  • type attribute

  • trigger elements

In the following section and its subsections, all elements and attributes defined are in the "http://www.idpf.org/2011/epub" namespace unless otherwise specified. For convenience the prefix "epub" is used as the namespace prefix for "http://www.idpf.org/2011/epub".

Since these constructs are namespace-qualified, XHTML5 Content Documents should be successfully processed by XHTML User Agents, as they are required to ignore unknown namespace-qualified elements and attributes.

The following sections specify these constructs in more detail.

3.1.1. Semantic inflection: the epub:type and rel attributes

The epub:type and rel attributes are used for semantic inflection of elements in the document structure, allowing the author to annotate elements with machine-extractable information about their specific purpose and/or nature.

This specification uses a subset of the vocabulary association mechanism defined by [RDFa11 Core] as the value provision mechanism for the epub:type and rel attributes. The epub:type attribute
Attribute Name


Attribute Namespace



Common, may be specified on all HTML elements.

Content Model

CURIEs [RDFa11 Core] with restrictions given below

The epub:type attribute is intended to be functionally equivalent to the W3C Role Attribute [Role], but with restrictions as specified in Section, “Vocabulary association”.

NOTE: pending finalization of discussions with the W3C, the epub:type attribute may be replaced by a reference to the PF Role Attribute, although the restrictions below would be retained. Vocabulary association

The following restrictions apply to the prefix mapping mechanisms of epub:type and rel as compared to their definitons in [Role] and [RDFa11 Core] respectively:

  • The use of xmlns to establish prefix mappings is not allowed; the profile and prefix attributes [RDFa11 Core] must be used instead

  • The profile and prefix attributes are only allowed on the document root element

  • The profile attribute has the fixed value of http://www.idpf.org/TODO/profiles/structure/

  • Prefix mappings established in the profile defined above must not be overriden locally in document instances

  • The epub:type attribute value must conform to the CURIEs datatype. [RDFa11 Core]

Given the restrictions above, all EPUB3 Publications will have the following properties in common:

  • All EPUB3 Publications (via the fixed URI in the profile attribute on the document root element) refer to the same profile document

  • The profile document defines a default vocabulary (i.e. the vocabulary whose properties are referred to without a prefix), which is the vocabulary located at http://www.idpf.org/TODO/vocab/structure/. The default vocabulary is fixed, and must not be overridden in instances.

  • The profile document associates the prefix xhv to the XHTML Vocabulary [XHTMLVOCAB]. This prefix mapping is fixed, and must not be overridden in instances

  • The establishment of prefix mappings additional to those in the profile document is done exclusively using the root element prefix attribute The epub:type and rel attributes: processing requirements

User agents must process the epub:type and rel attributes as follows:

  • A User Agent may associate specialized behaviors with none, some or all of the properties given in the default vocabulary.

  • A User Agent may associate specialized behaviors with properties given in vocabularies other than the default one.

  • A User Agent may support the dereferencing of unrecognized CURIEs occurring in the epub:type and rel attributes. If a User Agent successfully dereferences an unrecognized CURIE, it may (depending on the information available in the referenced vocabulary property) employ adaptive behaviors in response to the change to the document structural semantics that results from the CURIE dereferencing.

  • If the attempt to dereference an unrecognized CURIE fails, or if the dereferencing of unrecognized CURIEs is not supported, then the User Agent must ignore the given unrecognized CURIE and continue processing the epub:type or rel attribute.

  • When User Agent behavior associated with a given CURIE conflicts with behavior associated with the carrying XHTML element, then the behavior associated with the element must take precedence. Semantic inflection: examples

The following example shows the rel and epub:type attributes used to inflect footnote and note reference semantics. The property used is defined in the default vocabulary.

<html … profile="http://www.idpf.org/TODO/profiles/structure/">
    <p> … <a rel="footnote" href="n1">1</a> … </p>    
    <aside epub:type="footnote" id="n1">

3.1.2. The epub:trigger Element


  • Metadata content.

Contexts in which this element can be used:

  • Where metadata content is expected.

Content model:

  • Empty.

Content attributes:

  • Global attributes

  • action (show|hide|play|pause|resume|mute|unmute)

  • ref - relative URL to the element which is an object of an action (#id form)

  • ev:event - applicable event for this trigger as defined in [XML Events]

  • ev:observer - source object for this trigger as defined in [XML Events]

The trigger element associates an event from a specified source object (observer) with a desired action to be performed with a specified target object (ref), enabling content-provided user interface for controlling multimedia objects such as audio and video playback even in a non-scripted context. The semantics of the defined action values are:

  • show - element's visibility property is set to visible

  • hide: element's visibility property is set to hidden

  • play: play from the beginning (only applicable to video or audio elements)

  • pause: pause playing (only applicable to video or audio elements)

  • resume: resume playing (only applicable to video or audio elements)

  • mute - mute sound (only applicable to video or audio elements)

  • unmute: unmute sound (only applicable to video or audio elements)

TODO: example - image button controlling video pause/resume

User Agents that support video or audio playback must support the epub:trigger element.

3.2. MathML Support

XHTML Content Documents may include, and User Agents must support, MathML content as defined in [HTML5], subject to the further restrictions specified in this section.

XHTML Content Documents are required to limit usage of MathML to a restricted subset of the support defined in [HTML5], as defined in the following subsections. This subset is designed to ease the implementation burden on User Agents and promote accessibility, while retaining compatibility with HTML5 User Agents. These restrictions limit the MathML to presentation MathML except inside of a semantics element. They also provide guidelines on how fall back images and alternative text should be given.

3.2.1. Content MathML

All content MathML elements shalll be inside of an annotation-xml element. The annotation-xml element shall be the second child of a semantics element whose first child is presentation MathML. The annotation-xml element shall set the encoding attribute to "MathML-Content" or to "application/mathml-content+xml". These two values are equivalent. The value of the name attribute shall be "contentequiv".

3.2.2. Annotation Types

Legal annotation and annotation-xml attributes and content are restricted in the following ways:

  • The value for the content dictionary must be mathmlkeys

  • The values for name must be alternate-representation or contentequiv

  • The values for encoding for annotation-xml should be MathML-Content/application/mathml-content+xml or application/xhtml+xml When the latter is specified, the content must be conformant with this XHTML Content Document specification content, with the further restrictions that it must have the same flow model (block or inline) as the parent MathML, and must not itself contain MathML content

3.2.3. Fallback Images

Fallback images should be provided on the math element or on annotation. Preference order for fallback is: annotation, math (altimg).

In the context of EPUB, content conformance and fallback processing rules for such fallback images in MathML content are defined as the same as defined for the <img> element, as more specifically described in [Publication3].

3.3. Restriction on Unicode Private Use Characters

Any text characters in a Content Document (XHTML or SVG) that map to a code point within one of the Private Use Area (PUA) ranges as defined in [Unicode] must ocur within a string that is styled or attributed in a manner that includes a reference to an embedded font that contains an appropriate glyph for that code point.

3.4. Alternate Style Tags

In accordance with [AltStyleTags] , the class attribute of the link element is considered to have four values with pre-assigned semantics as denoted in that specification: horizontal, vertical, day, and night.

User Agents should select and utilize such tagged style sets as appropriate, as further discussed in that specification.

3.5. Resource References

In the context of EPUB, relative references to resources including but not limited to src attributes of img, object, and iframe elements must correspond to manifest items and otherwise follow the rules defined for Core Media Types and fallback processing in [Publications3]. The src atribute of any iframe element must reference an XHTML Content Document as defined herein.

3.6. Discouraged Constructs

A number of elements and attributes defined in[HTML5] are present primary for backwards-compatibility with User Agents compatible with HTML4 or earlier versions. Use of the constructs detailed below in Content Documents is strongly discouraged.

3.6.1. rp element

The rp element is intended to provide for an optional parenthesis display around ruby markup by older version User Agents that do not support ruby. HTML5 User Agents would be expected to simply ignore occurances of rp, so use in Content Documents is discouraged.

3.7. Scripting Support

Any XHTML Content Document may contain script elements; however, it is expected that by default EPUB User Agents will not be script-enabled. In order to request scripting for an XHTML Content Document, the "scripted" property must be set on the corresponding manifest item. See [Publications30] for more information

3.8. User Agent Conformance Requirements


3.9. Schema Information

An informative RelaxNG schema for XHTML Content Documents can be obtained at TODO

4. SVG Content Documents

SVG affords a means to represent final-form vector graphics and text. SVG may appear in XHTML Content Documents, either as the resource for an image or inline as defined by [HTML5]. As well, SVG can be an alternative to XHTML in certain circumstances, such as when final-form page images are the only suitable representation of content (such as "manga" or comic books).

4.1. Embedded Content

TODO: similar requirement to MathML wrt embedded flow content in SVG

5. EPUB Style Sheets

This section defines a baseline for CSS that may be included in or referenced by Content Documents. User Agents conformant with this specification should support these CSS constructs, consistent with their usage context. Content Documents may utilize any constructs defined in this section, with the proviso that User Agents according to this specification may ignore some or all style information, and are likely to render in a manner that differs from typical HTML5 User Agents (e.g. paginating content rather than providing a infinitely scrolling surface).TODO: Format this section like W3C CSS specs

5.1. CSS 2.1

The style baseline in EPUB3 is Cascading Style Sheets version 2.1 ( [CSS] ). An EPUB style Sheet may include, and a User Agent MUST accept, all style sheet constructs defined in [CSS].\

Use of the CSS position property values to achieve absolute positioning (i.e. absolute and fixed) is strongly discouraged, and User Agents may choose not to support these property values.

The statement that an EPUB Style Sheet may include a construct is considered to imply, unless otherwise specified, that a Reading System must accept, and may support (process in rendering), such properties

5.1.1. Voice Characteristics Properties

The speech-rate, voice-family, and pitch properties specified in the Aural Stylesheets Appendix of [CSS]. may occur in EPUB Style Sheets, only inside a @media rule with the value speech. These optional properties have the meanings defined in [CSS].. User Agents that support text-to-speech should support these properties.

5.2. CSS Fonts Level 3

EPUB Style Sheets may include all of the constructs defined in the CSS Fonts Module Level 3 ( [CSS3Fonts] ) specification. User Agents must support at least the following values for the src descriptor in @font-face rules: "woff", "opentype" TODO: finalize list of embedded formats

5.3. CSS Text Level 3

EPUB Style Sheets may include all of the constructs defined in the CSS Text Level 3 ( [CSS3Text] ) specification.

5.4. CSS Writing Modes

EPUB Style Sheets may include all of the constructs defined in the CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3 ( [CSS3WritingModes] ) specification.

5.5. Media Queries

EPUB Style Sheets may include @media queries as defined in the CSS Media Queries ( [MediaQueries] ) specification.

5.6. Multi-Column Layout

EPUB Style Sheets may include all of the constructs defined in the CSS Multi-column Layout Module ( [CSSMultiCol] ) specification.

NOTE: Reading Systems must treat the property "oeb-column-number" as an alias for the column-count property (but its use in content is deprecated and this conformance requirement will be removed in the next version of this specification).

5.7. Phoneme Property

EPUB Style Sheets may include, the property -epub3-phonemes, whose value is a space separate list of pronunciation strings in the International Phonetic Alphabet ("IPA"). The phonemes property must only occur inside a @media rule with the value speech. A User Agent that performs text-to-speeh should support this property.

5.8. Phonetic Alphabet at-rule

EPUB Style Sheets may include the at-rule @-epub3-phonetic-alphabet . This at-rule must only occur inside a @media rule with the value speech, and if it occurs must be prior to any occurance of the property -epub3-phonemes. The only allowable value of this at-rule is ipa.

5.9. Ruby positioning

EPUB Style Sheets may include the -epub3-ruby-position property, as defined in the CSS3 Ruby Annotation Module ( [CSS3Ruby] ). Reading systems that support ruby display should may?must? support this property.

5.10. Display Property Values oeb-page-head and oeb-page-foot

In addition to the standard values defined for the display property in [CSS] (Section 9.2.4), EPUB Style Sheets may specify the values oeb-page-head and oeb-page-foot.

Reading Systems should present the content of an element assigned display: oeb-page-head only as a header, and the content of an element assigned display: oeb-page-foot only as a footer. Neither should be simply presented as if it were inline or block. Reading Systems, however, are free to present headers and footers either in special areas as usual for paper publications, or to make them available in another way. For example, a device with a small screen might instead pop them up on demand.

For purposes of page layout, these display values are similar to block boxes with an absolute position (i.e. a position value of fixed or absolute). That is, they are removed from the normal flow and a new block box is created with its own flow. Margins, padding, and other block characteristics are determined as if the element had position: fixed set.

An element assigned display: oeb-page-head or display: oeb-page-foot shall not be considered in effect while any preceding content remains presented, and shall remain in effect until another header or footer respectively is in effect instead, or until no part of its parent element remains presented, whichever occurs first.. For example, when rendered to a screen with appropriate style settings, the myhead-classed div element below would become the page header as soon as nothing preceding the containing div is displayed and go out of effect when that div is no longer visible: WM: what if there is content IN the containing div preceding the header - is that "preceding content"?

   <div class="myhead" style="display: oeb-page-head">
      The OEB Publication Structure: Introduction

Appendix A. Contributors

This appendix is informative

A.1. Acknowledgements and Contributors

This specification has been developed through a cooperative effort, bringing together publishers, vendors, software developers, and experts in the relevant standards.

Version 3.0 of this specification was prepared by the International Digital Publishing Forum’s EPUB Maintenance Working Group. Active members of the working group at the time of publication of revision 2.0.1 were:

TODO 3.0 contributors list

Version 2.0.1 of this specification was prepared by the International Digital Publishing Forum’s EPUB Maintenance Working Group. Active members of the working group at the time of publication of revision 2.0.1 were:

Garth Conboy eBook Technologies Working Group Vice-chair
George Kerscher DAISY Consortium Working Group Chair
Alexis Wiles OverDrive
Alicia Wise Publishers Licensing Society
Amir Moghaddami National Library and Archives of Iran
Andreas Gosling Penguin UK
Andy Williams Cambridge University Press
Anupam Jain Innodata Isogen
Ben Trafford Invited Expert
Benoit Larroque Feedbooks
Bill McCoy Invited Expert
Bill Kasdorf Apex CoVantage
Bob Kasher The BookMasters Group
Brady Duga eBook Technologies
Byron Laws PreMedia Global
Catherine Zekri University of Montreal
Chris Kennedy Pearson Education
Corey Podolsky Entourage Systems Inc.
Cristina Mussinelli AIE
Daihei Shiohama Voyager Japan
Dan Amos DNAML
Dan Galperin Kobo
Dan Kok Crossway Books and Bibles
Dave Cramer Hachette Book Group USA
Dave Gunn RNIB Centre for Accessible Information
David Mandelbaum Barnes&Noble.com
Deidra Roberts World Health Organization
Donald Goyette McGraw-Hill Professional
Eric Freese Aptara
Eric Gold Digital Divide Data
Eric Muller Adobe
Gregory Shepherd Cengage Learning
Guy Fain Crossway Books & Bibles
Hadrien Gardeur Feedbooks
Hisashi Hoda Voyager Japan
Ignacio Fernández Galván
Israel Viente Mendele He-Books
Jim Link Macmillan Publishing Solutions
James MacFarlane Easypress Technologies
Jim Rura Educational Testing Service
John Crossman Benetech
John Prabhu HOV Services
John Rivlin eBook Technologies
John Wait Pearson Education
Jon Noring Invited Expert
Joshua Tallent eBook Architects
Karen Broome Sony
Keith Fahlgren Threepress Consulting
Kenny Johar Vision Australia
Laurie Casey Pearson
Lech Rzedzicki Pearson UK
Liisa McCloy-Kelley Random House
Lindy Humphreys Wiley/ Blackwell Books
Liza Daly Theepress Consulting
Makoto Murata JEPA EPUB Study Group
Marco Croella Simplicissimus Book Farm
Markus Gylling DAISY Consortium
Mattias Karlsson Dolphin Computer Access AB
Michael Smith IDPF
Neil Soiffer Design Science
Noah Genner BookNet Canada
Pat Pagano HarperCollins
Patricia Payton Bowker
Patrick Barry The Educational Company of Ireland
Patrick Berube LEARN
Paul Durrant Durrant Software Limited
Paul Norton Invited Expert
Penelope Reid EPUB User Group (UK)
Perce Huang Far EasTone Telecommunications
Peter Brantley Internet Archive
Peter Sorotokin Adobe
Richard Heiberger HarperCollins Publishers
Richard Kwan Invited Expert
Russell White Random House
Samir Kakar Aptara
Satya Pamarty codeMantra
Scott Cook codeMantra
Sean Ramsey LibreDigital
Siobahn Padgett Hachette BG USA
Steve Arany John Wiley & Sons
Takeshi Kanai Sony
Thad Swiderski LibreDigital
Tim Middleton BookNet Canada
Trudy Conti Follett
Tyler Ruse LibreDigital
William Howard EasyPress Technologies

Version 1.0 of this specification was prepared by the International Digital Publishing Forum’s Unified OEBPS Container Format Working Group. Active members of the working group at the time of publication of revision 1.0 were:

Garth Conboy eBook Technologies Working Group Co-Chair
John Rivlin eBook Technologies Working Group Co-Chair
Jon Ferraiolo IBM Working Group Vice-Chair
Nick Bogaty IDPF Working Group Secretary
Kelley L. Allen Random House
Angel Ancin iRex Technologies
Ryan Bandy Random House
Richard Bellaver Ball State University
Thierry Brethes Mobipocket
Janice Carter Benetech/Bookshare.org
Richard Cohn Adobe Systems Inc.
Neil De Young Hachette Book Group USA
Linh N. Do Random House, Inc.
Geoff Freed WGBH
Liang Gang TriWorks Asia
Peter Ghali Motricity, ereader.com
Markku T. Hakkinen DAISY Consortium
Gillian Harrison NetLibrary
Jonathan Hevenstone Publishing Dimensions
Theresa Horner HarperCollins
Karen Iannone Houghton Mifflin
Claire Israel Simon & Schuster
Mattias Karlsson Dolphin Computer Access
Bill Kasdorf Apex Publishing
George Kerscher DAISY Consortium
Steve Kotrch Simon & Schuster
Bill McCoy Adobe Systems, Inc.
Bill McKenna Follett
Bonnie Melton Houghton Mifflin College Division
Jon Noring OpenReader Consortium Invited Expert
Sayu Osayande Motricity, ereader.com
Lee Passey Invited Expert
Steve Potash OverDrive
Tyler Ruse Codemantra
Mike Smith Harlequin
Kimi Sugeno John Wiley & Sons
Gary Varnell Osoft.com
Xin Wang, Ph.D. ContentGuard, Inc.
Andrew Weinstein Lightning Source
Tom Whitcomb NetLibrary 
Andy Williams Cambridge University Press
Eli Willner Green Point Technology Services


Normative References

[AltStyleTags] Alternate Style TagsTODO: incorporate content into EPUB spec family.

[CSS3Text] CSS Text Level 3.

[CSS3WritingModes] CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3NOTE: this spec draft is undergoing major revision.

[EPUB3Overview] EPUB3 OverviewTODO fix link.

[MediaQueries] Media Queries.

[Publications30] EPUB Publications 3.0TODO fix link.

[RDFa11 Core] RDFa Core 1.1 . Syntax and processing rules for embedding RDF through attributes. Ben Adida, et al. 26 October 2010.

[XMLNS] Namespaces in XML (Third Edition) . T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, R. Tobin. W3C. 8 December 2009.

Informative References

Do we need to reference font mangling here?

[Role] Role Attribute . An attribute to support the role classification of elements. McCarron, et al. 05 August 2010.